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Mulan is then shown running through the forest, but is stopped when Mary Margaret fires an arrow at her to halt her in her tracks. Mulan turns to face them and a distraught Mary Margaret demands the compass. When Mulan refuses, she tackles Mulan and pulls an arrow out of her quiver and presses it against Mulan's neck. Mulan still refuses to give them the compass, saying that they will have to kill her first.

Mary Margaret raises the arrow just as Aurora comes around a tree and tells Mary Margaret to stop. Aurora then tells them all that occurred and asks what they are going to do next. Mulan asks if she is okay before they follow Mary Margaret and Emma. As the group arrives at Rumplestiltskin's cell in the ruins of the palace, Mulan uses her torch to search the cell for any sign of the squid ink.

After Aurora finds Rumplestiltskin's note, Mulan finds a small glass vial that is empty, although it may have contained ink at one point. They are then entrapped in the cell by Cora and Hook, and Cora reveals that she has Aurora's heart in her possession. Soon after, Mary Margaret uses the squid ink in the note that was written by Rumplestiltskin to open the cell and allows the group to escape. At Aurora's insistence that she cannot be trusted due to Cora holding her heart, Mulan reluctantly ties her to the remnants of the jail cell. At Lake Nostros, the group arrives to find Hook and Cora about to jump through the portal to Storybrooke.

Mulan, Emma, and Mary Margaret immediately attack. Mulan is able to battle Cora using her sword and is able to deflect her magic with the blade. As Mulan moves to attack Cora, Cora vanishes in a puff of smoke, and Aurora's heart nearly falls into the portal when Hook reaches out and grabs it, tossing it to Mulan. Mulan gives Mary Margaret her sword, saying it will deflect Cora's magic before running back to the palace ruins. She is able to put Aurora's heart back in her chest. Aurora then tells Mulan that Cora told her that Phillip may be able to be revived, and the two friends set off to recover his soul.

At some point in their quest, though through unknown means, they managed to recover Phillip's soul and revived him. The three later appear in the season finale, where they find Neal Cassidy unconscious on the beach outside of the Enchanted Forest. They take him back to the palace and tend to his injuries as Mulan keeps a close watch on the stranger. Upon awakening, she asks who he is, to which the man responds with his name, Neal. Her companions, Aurora and Prince Phillip, rush over to inspect the stranger. Hastily, Aurora helps to bring water to him while Neal wonders where this is.

She says him he is in their kingdom, and further questioning prompts Prince Phillip to tell Neal they are in the Enchanted Forest.

Shocked, Neal murmurs he is back, which causes Aurora to think he's a native of this land, but Mulan points out his clothes are foreign and similar to Emma and Mary Margaret's. At the mention of Emma's name, Neal realizes they are acquainted with her as well, and tries to explain he needs to save Emma from harm. In attempting to move from the bier, Neal struggles to sit up as his wound is not yet completely healed, but despite that, he is set on finding out if Emma and Henry are alright. Aurora queries if Neal is Henry's father, and goes on to fill him in on how she once met Henry in the Netherworld.

She mentions having harnessed the power to walk the dream world and find others like her, and it's possible to find Henry. Neal asks if she can find Emma to let her know he is alive. Assuming a laying spot on the bier, Aurora attempts to find with Emma or Henry in the dream world. While Prince Phillip watches over her, Mulan and Neal wait at the sidelines and converse. Mulan learns Neal assumed death was imminent after falling into the portal, and from focusing his thoughts of the Enchanted Forest, that's how he ended up here.

Curious about the other world, Storybrooke, she asks what it's like there. Neal starts off by saying people of that land believe the Enchanted Forest inhabitants to be fictional and exemplifies it with the Mulan animated movie. Confused, she inquires what a movie is, but the exchange is interrupted by Aurora's awakening. Crestfallen, Aurora notifies Neal she was unable to make contact.

However, Neal recalls his father always had plans and could have left something behind if he ever came back to the Enchanted Forest. He has hopes of finding such an item and using it to get to Emma and Henry by traveling to his father's castle. Prince Phillip raises the question of who his father is, and Neal admits it's Rumplestiltskin. Mulan and Neal go on foot towards the castle. Wishing to learn more about Neal's relationship with Emma, she asks why Emma never mentioned him before. Neal confesses he broke Emma's heart by letting her go to fulfill the breaking of the Dark Curse, and after it was finished with, fear of rejection kept himself from coming back to her.

Mulan remarks that his belief in love wasn't strong enough to overcome rejection, which Neal says is the greatest regret of his life. Through a brief search, Neal finds his father's old cane, which he uses to reveal a hidden door in the castle. From within, Neal discovers a crystal ball. Reluctantly, he agrees magic is the only thing that can help him now and attempts to get the ball to activate by touching it, which causes no change.

Mulan suggests to think about how he feels about Emma, and that will guide him to see her. Afterward, Neal devised a plan to get to Neverland: he will use Robin Hood's son, Roland, to lure the shadow to the castle, while they and Mulan lie and wait. After it appears to have failed, their plan works, and the shadow arrived for Roland. Robin managed to hold on to his son long enough for Neal to grab the shadow, and Mulan managed to force it to back off and fly back to Neverland, successfully taking Neal with it.

Mulan appreciates the offer but urgently has to talk to someone first before it's too late. Knowingly, Robin Hood believes she means a loved one, though she smiles and replies only time will tell. She rushes to the palace to approach Aurora. After making sure they are alone, Mulan announces that she has news to share. Coincidentally, so does Aurora, who excitedly confirms she and Prince Phillip are expecting their first child.

Mulan reacts with shock but quickly congratulates her. Recovering from her stupor, Mulan changes her mind about what she wanted to say and hastily states her intent to join Robin Hood's band of Merry Men. Leaving abruptly, Mulan turns to walk away with a saddened expression on her face. Later that night, Mulan arrives at the Merry Men's campsite and is greeted by Robin Hood, unaware that he's the man with the lion tattoo that Tinkerbell tried to have Regina meet back in the Enchanted Forest.

Sometimes later, Mulan became a bodyguard for hire, though it is unclear whether or not she is still a part of Robin's Merry Men. However, she's actually tasked by Fergus to keep Merida from going into battle with him. By the time they arrived at the battlefield, the clan, and the invaders were already fighting each other. They spotted a knight coming towards Fergus with a sword, but despite Merida's effort to stop him, Fergus was killed.

Two years later, old turmoils have taken its toll on Mulan, leaving her cold and callous. She now works to collect money debts from people for her employer, until Merida found and ask her for help. Returning to the site of the old battlefield, the two had found a piece of cloak from the knight who killed Fergus. However, before they can continue their investigation, they were confronted by Zelena and King Arthur. During her search in the old witch's hut, Mulan encounters a wolf inside. Right away, she knows the wolf's identity, and after knocking over a nearby cauldron, the smoke engulfed it and revert it back to none other than Ruby.

With her help, Mulan and Merida found out that Arthur is the knight who killed Fergus. After defeating the two, Mulan and Ruby stopped by Fergus' grave to bid Merida farewell.


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Though Mulan admits that she is too late admit her feelings for her lost love, she is still not over it. So Ruby encourages her to join her to find other werewolves like her as a way to heal from past wounds, which she accept. Together with Ruby, Mulan aided her friend in her journey to find her pack. Their search took them into the woods near Oz , which Ruby is familiar with, and where they encountered Dorothy and her dog Toto.

After they informed Dorothy of where they're heading, the three spotted a green cyclone, which Dorothy realized that Zelena has returned. Zelena holds Toto hostage and demands the silver slippers from the three to reunite with her daughter, in exchange for Toto's safety. To save Toto, Mulan creates a concoction that can put Zelena to sleep, but she needs poppies to complete the brew, which Ruby and Dorothy managed to acquire while having just escaped a pursuit from a couple of Zelena's flying monkeys.

Finally completing the brew, Mulan gives it to Dorothy.

As Dorothy retires to her tent to rest for the night, Ruby confides with Mulan about Dorothy's reaction at seeing her turning into a wolf. At first, Ruby worried about Dorothy's rejection, until Mulan encourages her not to hold back, as she doesn't want Ruby to make the same mistake she made.

Later, Mulan and the munchkins from Oz found Dorothy placed under a sleeping curse by Zelena. They stand vigil until Ruby returns. Using the silver slippers, Ruby and Mary Margaret were transported from the Underworld to Oz, where the former managed to save Dorothy with true love's kiss, waking her up and breaking the curse.

After admitting their feelings for each other, Ruby and Dorothy seal their blossoming romance with a kiss as Mulan, Mary Margaret, and the Munchkins happily look on. Liu Yifei is set to portray Mulan in a live-action adaptation of the Disney animated film. Due to her world being destroyed by the time of Kingdom Hearts , Mulan did not appear in the first game, while her companion Mushu had escaped the world's destruction.

The trio decides to enlist with her after learning she was trying to help her family. Despite difficulty fitting in with the soldiers, including Yao, Ling, and Chien-Po, Mulan proves herself worthy when she defeats Shan Yu and his Heartless while saving Shang's life. However, Mushu accidentally reveals Mulan's true identity to him, causing an enraged Shang to desert Mulan and the group, while still fulfilling his life debt with sparing Mulan for saving his life, instead of executing her for violating Imperial law. Afterward, the group learns that Shan Yu is still alive, and are forced to follow him back to the Imperial City when he kidnaps the Emperor.

After defeating the villain, Mulan is thanked by both Shang and the Emperor. By the time Sora had arrived back, Mulan had begun hunting a mysterious cloaked man who she believes is an enemy spy, but Sora knows it is a member of Organization XIII. As they followed the cloaked man to the mountains, a Heartless dragon awakes, courtesy of Organization member Xigbar.

This forces Mulan and the others to battle the Heartless and defeat it when it confronts them in the Imperial City in the courtyard before the Imperial Palace. Mulan gives her support to Sora when he leaves to continue his journey to find Riku and Kairi. As a reward for her honor, the Emperor makes her Shang's partner. During the end credits, Mulan and Shang were having a romantic moment in the Bamboo Grove, only for their moment to be interrupted when Yao, Ling, and Chien-Po were spying on them.

In the game, Mulan has been kidnapped to the World of Illusion by an evil witch known as Mizrabel , as part of a dark scheme to steal the essence of beloved Disney characters for her own selfish purposes. Fortunately, however, she is soon rescued by Mickey Mouse and remain within a sanctuary with the other rescued Disney characters until Mizrabel's eventual defeat, allowing the characters to return back to their homes.

Mulan appears in the fourth book in the series. In honor of the Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Lunar New Year, the celebration features live performances, activities, and food. She is also featured in Disneyland's stage show " Mickey and the Magical Map ", where she performs "Reflection" in a medley alongside Pocahontas , Rapunzel , and Flynn Rider. Mulan and Mushu as a kite both make cameo appearances in the Disneyland version of It's a Small World. Mulan used to take part in former Castle Show, Cinderella's Surprise Celebration as one of the heroes called to protect the kingdom from the Evil Queen 's invasion.

Mulan also makes a cameo appearance in Disney's Hollywood Studios ' version of Fantasmic! Mulan appears regularly for meet-and-greets at Epcot. However, she made a cameo appearance in the show Mickey and the Wondrous Book performed in Storybook Theater , when the "other" six stories are featured from the Wondrous Book during the final part.

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Prior, Mulan appeared in the castle show Disney in the Stars. Mulan is heavily featured throughout the park. She stars in her own float dressed as Ping while riding Khan in Mickey's Storybook Express , and is featured in her own scene in Voyage to the Crystal Grotto. Inside of the Enchanted Storybook Castle , Mulan has her own wall carving display alongside other members of the Disney Princess franchise. Mulan also appears in the castle fireworks show Ignite the Dream. Mulan also has an extended section in the show Wishes , where she performs both "Honor to Us All" and "Reflection".

Despite not being a princess by birth or marriage, Mulan is an official member of the highly popular Disney Princess franchise, though not marketed as prominently as other princesses like Cinderella or Ariel. It is probable that prisoners there were duly and properly married by banns in the prison chapel, long before , which is the date of the earliest illicit Fleet Register in the Bishop of London's registry; for, in a letter, Sept. Georg Lestor, and hath maryed M ris Babbington, Mr. Thomas Fanshawe mother-in-lawe. It is sayed she is a woman of good wealthe so as nowe the man wylle able to lyve and mayntayn hymself in prison, for hether unto he hath byne in poor estate.

In the chaplain was Robert Elborough, who married but few without banns or licence, 'but under a colour doth allow his clerk Bartholomew Basset to do what he pleases,' and in Mr. John Taylor filled the same office, but he does not seem to have solemnised matrimony at the Fleet. There was, however, a low clergyman, named John Gaynam, otherwise Doctor Gaynam, who did a large trade there in marriages, from to A little anecdote of him, though not in Queen Anne's time, may not be amiss. He was giving evidence at the Old Bailey on the trial of Robert Hussey for bigamy, in The 9th of September, , I married a couple at the Rainbow Coffee House, the corner of Fleet Ditch, and entered the marriage in my register, as fair a register as any church in England can produce.

Are you not ashamed to come and own a clandestine marriage in the face of a court of justice? The same practice was followed by others during this reign. John Floud, who was for some years a prisoner p. John Mottram, from to He was convicted, in , in the Consistory Court, for marrying illegally, and was suspended from his ministerial functions for three years.

Jerome Alley, from to , when he left off marrying 'for some other preferment. John Evans, from to Henry Gower, to Hodgkins, to Marston, to Oswald, Nehemiah Rogers, a prisoner, but rector of Ashingdon, Essex, married between and He seems to have been a specially bright specimen of the Fleet parson. Living in Essex, and all places else; he is a very wicked man as lives, for drinking, whoring, and swearing, he has struck and boxed y e bridegroom in y e Chapple, and damned like any com'on soldier, he marries both within and without y e Chapple like his brother Colton.

Bynes, to Walter Stanhope, Vice, to ; and J. Wise, in The Queen's Bench was not behind its brother of the Fleet, but there even greater abuses existed—laymen officiating. For which 'tis said too just Occasion has been given by a Discovery lately made that Laymen have been suffer'd to marry at the Queen's Bench; and that John Sarjeant, who now acts there again as Clerk, has forg'd Certificates of pretended Marriages, for which he keeps Register books, with large blanks almost in every Page, whereby very mischievous Frauds are practicable.

For preventing whereof, the late Chaplain labour'd hard with the most proper Person to command the said books out of the Clerk's Custody, and not prevailing, resign'd his Office, which he had discharg'd among the Prisoners, both in the House and in the Rules, above five years, charitably, having never receiv'd one Farthing of the Fees thereto annexed. It renewed, from June 24, , the penalty of l. You could go a country walk and pop in and get married. A newly built church at Hampstead thus [48] advertises: 'As there are many weddings at Sion Chapel, Hampstead, five Shillings only is required for all the Church fees of any Couple that are married there, provided they bring with them a license or Certificate, according to the Act of Parliament.

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Two Sermons are continued to be preached in the said Chapel every Sunday, and the place will be given to any Clergyman that is willing to accept of it, to be approved of. Whilst on the subject of curious marriages, the following may well be noticed, extracted from the Parish Register: 'John Bridmore and Anne Sellwood, both of Chiltern All Saints, were married October 17, This is not uncommon, the object being, according to a vulgar error, to exempt the husband from the payment of any debts his wife may have contracted in her ante-nuptial condition.

This error seems to have been founded on a misconception of the law, as it is laid down [49] that 'the husband is liable for the wife's debts, because he acquires an absolute interest in the personal estate of the wife,' etc. An unlearned person from this might conclude, and not unreasonably, that if his wife had no estate whatever , he could not incur any liability.

Anyhow, after marriage they were liable, as the following gentlemen knew: 'Whereas Elizabeth Stephenson, Wife of George Stephenson, late of Falken Court, near the Queen's Bench, in Southwark, hath Eloped from her said Husband, and since hath contracted several Debts with a design to Ruin her said Husband. These are therefore to give notice to the Publick, That the said George Stephenson will not on any Account whatever Pay or allow of any Debt so Contracted by the said Elizabeth Stephenson, either before or since her elopement.

These are therefore to give notice to all Traders, and all other persons whatsoever, that from and after this present Notice they do not maintain, sustain, or detain the said Isabella from the said Aaron her Husband, or any of his Goods or Plate carryed off by the said Isabella, either by lending her Money or Selling her Goods, or by any other ways whatsoever, under penalty of the law, and forfeiture of the credit, if any, given to the said Isabella from the Notice hereof.

Having discussed the private hole-and-corner, and clandestine marriages, it may be well to inquire the reasons why these were preferred to the more ceremonious ones. Mainly on the score of expense, and to get rid of the uproarious and senseless festivities which accompanied them. Let Misson describe what one was like: 'One of the Reasons that they have for marrying secretly, as they generally do in England, is that thereby they avoid a great deal of Expence and Trouble Persons of Quality, and many others who imitate them, have lately taken up the Custom of being marry'd very late at Night in their Chamber, and very often at some Country House.

In England it is done still among the greatest Noblemen. These Ribbands they Call Favours, [51] and give them not only to those that are at the Wedding, but to five hundred People besides; they send them about, and distribute them at their own houses Among the Citizens and plain Gentlemen which is what they call the Gentry they sometimes give these Favours; but it is very Common to avoid all Manner of Expence as much as Possible.

When those of a middling Condition have a mind to be so extravagant as to marry in Publick which very rarely happens they invite a Number of Friends and Relations; every one puts on new Cloaths, [52] and dresses finer than ordinary; the Men lead the Women, they get into Coaches, and so go in Procession, and are marry'd in full Day at Church.

After Feasting and Dancing, and having made merry that Day and the next, they take a Trip into the Country, and there divert themselves very pleasantly. These are extraordinary Weddings. The Ordinary ones, as I said before, are generally incognito. The Bridegroom , that is to say, the Husband that is to be, and the Bride , who is the p. Curate and his Clerk, tell him their Business; are marry'd with a low Voice, and the Doors shut; tip the Minister a Guinea, and the Clerk a Crown; steal softly out, one way, and t'other another, either on Foot or in Coaches; go different Ways to some Tavern at a Distance from their own Lodgings, or to the House of some trusty Friend, there have a good Dinner, and return Home at Night as quietly as Lambs.

If the Drums and Fiddles have notice of it they will be sure to be with them by Day break, making a horrible Racket, till they have got the Pence; and, which is worst of all, the whole Murder will come out. This done, and the Garters being fastened to the Hats of the Gallants, the Bride maids carry the Bride into the Bed chamber, where they undress her, [54] and lay her in Bed. The Bridegroom, who by the Help of his Friends is undress'd in some other Room, comes in his Night-gown as soon as possible to his Spouse, who is surrounded by Mother, Aunt, Sisters, and Friends, and without any farther Ceremony gets into Bed.

Some of the Women run away, others remain, and the Moment afterwards they are all got together again. If the Man's stockings, thrown by the Maids, fall upon the Bridegroom's Head, it is a Sign she will quickly be marry'd herself; and the same Prognostick holds good of the Woman's Stockings thrown by the Man. Oftentimes these young People engage with one another upon the Success of the Stockings, tho' they themselves look upon it to be nothing but Sport.

While some amuse themselves agreeably with these little Follies, others are preparing a good Posset , which is a kind of Cawdle, a Potion made up of Milk, Wine, Yolk of Eggs, Sugar, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, etc. This they present to the young Couple, who swallow it down as fast as they can to get rid of so troublesome Company; the p. If they obstinately continue to retard the Accomplishment of their Wishes, the Bridegroom jumps up in his Shirt, which frightens the Women, and puts them to Flight. The Men follow them, and the Bridegroom returns to the Bride. The young Woman, more gay and more contented than ever she was in her Life, puts on her finest Cloaths for she was married only in a Mob [56] , the dear Husband does the same, and so do the young Guests; they laugh, they dance, they make merry; and these Pleasures continue a longer or shorter time, according to the several Circumstances of Things.

There was no going away for the honeymoon for the newly married couple. That trying season was spent at home, in a somewhat stately manner—receiving company, and must have been excessively irksome, as the following amusing account of a citizen's honeymoon shows: [57] 'I have lately married a very pretty body, who being somewhat younger and richer than myself, I was advised to go a wooing to her in a finer suit of clothes than ever I wore in my life: for I love to dress plain, and suitable to a man of my rank.

How ever, I gained her heart by it. Upon the wedding day I put myself, according to custom, in another suit, fire new, with silver buttons to it. I am so out of Countenance among my neighbours, upon being so fine, that I heartily wish my clothes well worn out. I fancy every body observes me as I walk the street, and long to be in my own plain geer again. Besides, forsooth, they have put me in a Silk Night gown and a gaudy fool's cap, and make me now and then stand in the window with it. I am ashamed to be dandled thus, and cannot look in the glass without blushing to see myself turned into such a pretty little master.

They tell me I must appear in my wedding suit for the first month at least; after which I am resolved to come again to my every day's clothes, for at present every day is Sunday with me I forgot to tell you of my white gloves, which they say, too, I must wear all the first month. I am afraid some of these good gentlemen beat their wives sometimes; and even the gallant Sir Richard Steele says: [58] 'I cannot deny but there are perverse Jades that fall to Men's Lots, with whom it requires more than common Proficiency in Philosophy to be able to live.

When these are joined to Men of warm Spirits, without Temper or Learning, they are frequently corrected with Stripes; but one of our famous Lawyers is of opinion, That this ought to be used sparingly. Where the brass knocker, wrapt in flannel band, Forbids the thunder of the footman's hand; Th' upholder, rueful harbinger of death, Waits with impatience for the dying breath; As vultures o'er a camp, with hovering flight, Snuff up the future carnage of the fight. Nay, if Steele is to be believed, they even feed heavily for early information of death.

First, Twenty Guineas to my Lady's Woman for notice of your Death a Fee I've, before now, known the Widow herself go halfs in , but no matter for that. I mean attending to give notice of your Death. I had all your long fit of Sickness last Winter, at Half a Crown a day, a fellow waiting at your Gate, to bring me Intelligence, but you unfortunately recovered, and I Lost all my Obliging pains for your Service.

This, of course, is exaggeration, but although, as we have seen, people were sparing in expense over births or marriages, they were absolutely lavish over funerals, and the undertaker could well afford to disgorge some of his gains. Was it the funeral of a rich man, the corpse must straightway be embalmed, roughly though it may be. Have you the hangings and the Sixpenny nails for my Lord's Coat of Arms?

Ha you! This Fellow has a good Mortal look, place him near the Corps; That Wanscoat Face must be o' top of the Stairs: That Fellow's almost in a Fright that looks as if he were full of some strange misery at the Entrance of the Hall.

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The undertaker issued his handbills—gruesome things, with grinning skulls and shroud-clad corpses, thigh bones, mattocks and pickaxes, hearses, and what not. John Elphick, Woollen Draper, over against St. The dead were then buried in woollen, which was rendered compulsory by the Acts 30 Car. The p. You are desired to Accompany the Corps of Mr. Thomas Newborough , from his late Dwelling-House in St. No affidavit to be necessary for a person dying of the plague.

It imposed a fine of 5 l. The material used was flannel, and such interments are frequently mentioned in the literature of the time, and Luttrell mentions in his diary Oct. Elegies, laudatory of the deceased, were sometimes printed and sent to friends: these were got up in the same charnel-house style. Indeed, no pains were spared to make a funeral utterly miserable and expensive.

Hatbands were costly items. Indeed it is refreshing among the universal spoiling of the deceased's survivors to find that one man advertises cheap mourning and funeral necessaries. And all sorts of set Mourning both Black and Gray and all other Furniture sutable to it, fit for any person of Quality.

Which I promise to perform 2 s. Of course these remarks do not apply to the poor: they had already started burial clubs or societies, and very cheap they seem to have been. We see in the invitation to Mr. Newborough's funeral that it was to take place on an evening in January. This probably was so p.

These were heavy, and sometimes judging from the illustrations to undertakers' handbills were made of four tapers twisted at the stem and then branching out. That these wax candles were expensive enough to excite the thievish cupidity of a band of roughs the following advertisement will show: 'Riots and Robberies. Committed in and about Stepney Church Yard, at a Funeral Solemnity, on Wednesday the 23rd day of September; and whereas many Persons, who being appointed to attend the same Funeral with white Wax lights of a considerable Value, were assaulted in a most violent manner, and the said white Wax lights taken from them.

Whoever shall discover any of the Persons, guilty of the said Crimes, so as they may be convicted of the same, shall receive of Mr. We get a curious glimpse of the paraphernalia of a funeral in the Life of a notorious cheat, 'The German Princess' who lived, and was hanged, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, and the same funeral customs therein described obtained in Anne's time. She took a lodging at a house, in a good position, and told the landlady that a friend of hers, a stranger to London, had just died, and was lying at 'a pitiful Alehouse,' and might she, for convenience sake, bring his corpse there, ready for burial on the morrow.

The landlady consented, and 'that Evening the Corps in a very handsome Coffin was brought in a Coach, and plac'd in the Chamber, which was the Room one pair of Stairs next the street and had a Balcony. The Coffin being cover'd only with an ordinary black Cloth, our Counterfeit seems much to dislike it; the Landlady tells her that for 20 s. Another very costly item in funerals was the giving of mourning rings. We see [64] the number of rings given at Pepys' funeral in p. Thoresby [65] shows to what a prodigal extent this custom might be carried.

Thomas Gale, Dean of York, who was interred with great solemnity: lay in state, rings besides scarfs to bearers and gloves to all given in the room where I was, which yet could not contain the company. Naturally, a great many must have come to a man in the course of his life, as we may see by the contents of a box lost out of a waggon between Stamford and London: '3 Hair Rings, 6 with a Death's Head, about 2 penny weight apiece the Posie Prepared be to follow me ; 3 other mourning rings with W.

Heltey, ob. Whoever brings it to Mr. White's at the Chocolate House in St. James's shall have two Guineas reward. Besides the rings, hatbands, scarves, and gloves, there was another tax; for Evelyn, [66] noting Pepys' death and burial, says, 'Mr. Pepys had been for neare 40 years so much my particular friend that Mr. Jackson sent me compleat mourning , desiring me to be one to hold up the pall at his magnificent obsequies, but my indisposition hinder'd me from doing him this last office.

The pomp of funerals was outrageous. Gay, observant as he always was, notes this in 'Trivia,' book 3:—. No, the Dead know it not, nor profit gain: It only serves to prove the Living vain. How short is Life! Is all this Pomp for laying Dust to Dust? No wonder he exclaimed against these mortuary extravagances. Albans to Dunstable; and the next day through Hockley where it was met by about 20 Persons on Horseback to Woburn and Newport Pagnel, and to his seat at Great Lynford a Mile farther in the county of Buckingham: Where, after the Body had been set out, with all Ceremony befitting his Degree, for near 2 hours, 'twas carried to the Church adjacent in this order, viz.

But there was one thing they did not spend so much money upon as their forefathers did, i. In this age the bust, or 'busto,' was used in preference to the recumbent, or half-figures, of the previous century; but by far the greater number of mortuary memorials took the form of mural tablets, more or less ornate, according to the taste and wealth of the parties concerned.

As a rule the epitaph was in Latin—this classical age, and the somewhat pedantic one that followed, could brook no meaner tongue in which to eulogise its dead; and their virtues were pompously set forth in that language which is common to the whole of the civilised world. No account of the funerals of this age would be complete without seeing what Misson says on the subject:—'As soon as any Person is dead, they are oblig'd to give Notice thereof to the Minister of the Parish, and to those who are appointed to visit dead Bodies.

This Custom of visiting dead Bodies was establish'd after the dreadful Plague that ravag'd London in , to the Intent that it might be immediately known if there was any Contagious Distemper, and proper Methods taken to put a Stop to it. They are generally two Women that do this. The Clerk of the Parish receives their Certificate, and out of these is form'd an Abridgment that is publish'd every Week. By this Paper you may see how many Persons of both Sexes dy'd within that Week, of what Distemper, or by what Accident.

This Shift is always White; but there are different Sorts of it as to Fineness, and consequently of different Prices. To make these Dresses is a particular Trade, and there are many that sell nothing else; so that these Habits for the Dead are always to be had ready made, of what Size or Price you please, for People of every Age and Sex. After they have p. When these Ornaments are not of Woollen Lace, they are at least edg'd, and sometimes embroider'd with black Thread. The Shirt shou'd be at least half a Foot longer than the Body, that the Feet of the Deceas'd may be wrapped in it as in a Bag.

When they have thus folded the End of the Shirt close to the Feet, they tye the Part that is folded down with a Piece of Woollen Thread, as we do our Stockings; so that the End of the Shirt is done into a Kind of Tuft. That the Body may ly the softer, some put a Lay of Bran, about four inches thick, at the Bottom of the Coffin.

The Body being thus equipp'd and laid in the Coffin which Coffin is sometimes very magnificent , it is visited a second time, to see that it is bury'd in Flannel, and that nothing about it is sowed with Thread. They let it lye three or four Days in this Condition; which Time they allow, as well to give the dead Person an Opportunity of Coming to Life again, if his Soul has not quite left his Body, as to prepare Mourning, and the Ceremonies of the Funeral. A little before the Company is set in Order for the March, they lay the Body into the Coffin upon two Stools, in a Room where all that please may go and see it; they then take off the Top of the Coffin, and remove from off the Face a little square Piece of Flannel, made on Purpose to cover it, and not fastened to any Thing; Upon this Occasion the rich Equipage of the Dead does Honour to the Living.

The Relations and chief Mourners are in a Chamber apart, with their more intimate Friends; and the rest of the Guests are dispersed in several Rooms about the House. Before they set out, and after they return, it is usual to present the Guests with something to drink, either red or white Wine, boil'd with Sugar and Cinnamon, or some such Liquor. Note, no Men ever go to Women's burials, nor the Women to the Men's; so that p. Such Women in England will hold it out with the Men, when they have a Bottle before them, as well as upon t'other Occasion, and tattle infinitely better than they.

This is spread over the Coffin, and is so broad that the Six or Eight Men that carry the Body are quite hid beneath it to their Waste, and the Corners and Sides of it hang down low enough to be born by those [70] who, according to Custom, are invited for that purpose. The Minister of the Parish, generally accompany'd by some other Minister, and attended by the Clerk, walks next; and the Body carry'd as I said before, comes just after him.

The Relations in close Mourning, and all the Guests two and two, make up the rest of the Procession. The Common Practice is to carry the corpse thus into the Body of the Church, where they set it down upon two Tressels, while either a Funeral Sermon is preach'd, containing an Eulogium upon the deceased, or certain Prayers said, adapted to the Occasion.

If the Body is not bury'd in the Church, they carry it to the Church Yard belonging to the same, where it is interr'd in the Presence of the Guests, who are round the Grave, and they do not leave it 'till the Earth is thrown in upon it. Then they return Home in the same order that they came, and each drinks two or three Glasses more before he goes Home. Among Persons of Quality 'tis customary to embalm the Body, and to expose it for a Fortnight or more on a Bed of State. After which they carry it in a Sort of a Waggon [71] made for that Purpose, and cover'd with black Cloth, to the Place appointed by the Deceased.

A notice of a Roman Catholic funeral must conclude this subject. It is taken from the will of 'Mr. I also appoint my Corps to be carried in a Herse drawn with Six white Horses, with white Feathers, and followed by Six Coaches, with six Horses to each Coach, to carry the four and twenty Persons As for Mourning I leave that to my Executors hereafter nam'd; and I do not desire them to give any to whom I shall leave a legacy.

I die in the Faith of the True Catholic Church. Widows wore black veils, and a somewhat peculiar cap, and had long trains—allusions to which are very frequent in the literature of the time. If, Thirteen Months hence, a Friend should haul one to a Play one has a mind to see! Although for the purpose of this work it is necessary to say somewhat of the houses of the period, it is not worth while discussing the so-called revival of the architecture of Queen Anne's time. The modern houses are quaint and pretty, but they are innocent of any close connection with her reign. Artists' and architects' holiday rambles in Holland are provocative of most of them; 'sweet little bits' having been brought home in sketch-books from Dordrecht and kindred happy hunting-grounds for the picturesque.

The style was not even adopted for mansions— vide Marlborough House and Blenheim; and the exterior of the ordinary town houses, even of the better class, was singularly unpretentious. Hatton [73] is struck with admiration of Queen Square now Queen Anne's Gate , and says it is 'a beautiful New tho' small Square, of very fine Buildings. It was not that there was a lack of good architects, for Wren and Vanbrugh were alive, but the houses and furniture were in conformity with the spirit of the times—very dull, and plain, and solid. We must never forget that during nearly the whole of this queen's reign a cruel war exhausted the people's finances, that trade was circumscribed, and that there were no mushroom parvenus , with inflated fortunes made from shoddy or the Stock Exchange, to spend their wealth lavishly on architecture or art in any shape.

A dull mediocrity in thought and feeling prevailed, and if any originality in architecture was attempted, it would certainly have been satirised, as it was in the very little-known poem of 'The History of Vanbrugh's House. But should any reader wish to see good specimens of real Queen Anne's houses, I would recommend a visit to Nos. They are undoubtedly genuine mark the date on the waterspout ; and the staircase of No.

The ceiling, too, at the top of the staircase is very beautifully painted, and was most probably the work either of Laguerre or Thornhill. It is good enough for either of them. See also an old house, now used as a Ward School, formerly the residence of Sir C. Wren, in a courtyard in Botolph Lane, Eastcheap. But a good plan is to judge of the houses by contemporary evidence and description. Paul's Church Yard, London. The windows of these houses were long but narrow; the smallness of the panes being rendered necessary by the fact that no large size could be made in window-glass, it being only of late years that the manufacture has improved to that extent.

Here is another house described, temp. There is under the Shop a very good dry Warehouse that is brickt at Bottom. Inquire of Mr. Richard Wright at the Perriwig in Bread Street. This must have been an extra good house, for they were mostly roofed with tiles, a fact which has practical demonstration, for after the terrible storm of Nov. On Dec. As a rule the rooms were fairly lofty, and the walls of the better class were mostly wainscotted with oak, walnut, chestnut, or cedar, and sometimes beautifully carved, and in the lower-class houses with deal, painted. But wall papers were coming in.

Stained glass was not used, generally, for decorative purposes, save for coats of arms; indeed, the art seems to have been in a bad way, judging from the following advertisement: [78] 'Whereas the ancient Art of Painting and Staining Glass has been much discouraged, by reason of an Opinion generally received, That the Red Colour not made in Europe for many Years is totally lost; These are to give Notice, That the said Red, and all other Colours are made to as great a Degree of Curiosity and Fineness as in former Ages by William and Joshua Price, Glasiers and Glass Painters near Hatton Garden in Holborn, London, where any Gentlemen, who have the Curiosity, may be convinc'd by Demonstration, there being a large Window just now finished for his Grace the Duke of Leeds, which will be sent into the Country in a few days.

Houses were not always let by Agreement, but the leases were sold; and it is by means of such advertisements that we are able to get at the rents, which seem to have been very low—even reckoning the difference of value in money. Certainly they had none of our modern appliances and conveniences, which add so considerably to the cost of buildings, nor do they seem to have been saddled with exorbitant ground rents. Rent is reserved. The Houses are let at l. A little way out of town rents were even cheaper than this. Here would be a boon for rowing men.

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I have the first floor, a dining room and bed chamber, at eight shillings a week; plaguy deep, but I spend nothing on eating,' etc. When he removed to Chelsea he had to pay more. Atkin's mother demand of 4 s. It is needless to say that there was more danger of fire then than now; and the inhabitants of London, very many of whom must have had a vivid remembrance of that awful fire in , were not altogether neglectful of their interests in this matter. In an Act was passed amending an Act made in the sixth year of Anne's reign, 'for the better preventing of Mischiefs that may happen by Fire.

They were also fully alive to the necessity of keeping life-saving appliances in their houses. There were three fire insurance companies, whose leaden badges used to be nailed on to the houses, to show they were insured, and in what office; and a reward was offered by the Friendly Society on July 14, , for the discovery of persons who had stolen some of them.

The system was to pay 30 s. Second, the Friendly Society, in Palsgrave Court, without Temple Bar, which was the first in that insured by mutual contribution, where you could insure l. In the number of assured was 18, Martin's Lane commenced about Here a payment of 12 s. All these employed several men in liveries, and with badges on their arms, to extinguish fire. The accompanying contemporary illustration is very rude, but it gives a vivid representation of a fire at that time. Gay gives the following graphic description of a fire, so that we may almost fancy we see the firemen at work.

But hark! The sanitary arrangements of these houses were very defective, and the streets at night time must have been anything but pleasant walks.

SHOP OUTERWEAR

The water supply, too, was not good. Old-fashioned wells and pumps, sunk in a crowded city full of cesspools and graveyards, could not have furnished a healthy supply. Of course there was the water brought by the city from Highgate and Hampstead, and there was the New River, but it evidently was not sufficient for the use of the inhabitants, or it would not have been hawked about. More was furnished by the Thames Water Works by means of a huge water-wheel, which worked many force-pumps, and which was erected by a Dutchman named Peter Morrice, in This occupied a position on the old bridge, similar to its being placed close to the stairs by Fishmongers' Hall at the present time.

Although the river was infinitely purer than at present, yet, being tidal, and the supply being taken from in shore, it could not have been good for drinking purposes. There was a new company formed to work this machine, and in the London Gazette , Oct. Hatton says in his 'New View of London' that 'besides the old work erected by Mr.

Morris , the New placed in the 4th Arch of the Bridge consists of 2 Wheels with 7 Engines set up about the Year , so there are in all 13 Engines. Sorocold , whereby the Thames Water is raised from the N. The Flux and Reflux of the Water worketh the Engine.

Here are several Proprietors who serve Houses for the most part at 20 s. They pay the City l. His Rates are 20 s. Margaret's, Westminster , from the Thames. The Water House is situate on the E. Charles 2 about the Year Bing Site Web Enter search term: Search. Ad Feature Miley Cyrus thanks boyfriend Cody Simpson for looking after her while she has tonsillitis - as she jokes about 'no longer being gay' Jennifer Aniston talks her epic Friends mini-reunion Hollyoaks star, 37, and husband David O'Mahony are expecting first child And today Elton lifts the lid on the love-hate relationship that lasted a lifetime Riverdale says goodbye to Luke Perry's character in season four trailer Prince Harry and Meghan Markle brought 'lots of toys' and 'home comforts' for Archie to help him settle on Expert reveals the tell-tale signs of 'wine face' - including fine lines, dry Why every midlife woman must watch their money when they fall in love: Ask his salary on the first date, What a bromance!

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